Ramanathapuram District

Ramanathapuram

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Ramanathapuram

Ramanathapuram District is an administrative district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. The city of Ramanathapuram is the district headquarters. Ramanthapuram District has an area of 4123 km˛, and a population of 1,187,604 (as of 2001). It is 25.46% urbanised. It is bounded on the north by Sivaganga District, on the northeast by Pudukkottai District, on the east by the Palk Strait, on the south by the Gulf of Mannar, on the west by Thoothukudi District, and on the northwest by Virudhunagar District. The district contains the Indian portion of Rama's Bridge, an east-west chain of low islands and shallow reefs that extend between India and the island nation of Sri Lanka, and separate the Palk Strait from the Gulf of Mannar. The Palk Strait is presently navigable only by shallow-draft vessels.

Most of the area is covered by the unconsolidated sediments of Quaternary age except in the northwestern part, where isolated patches of Archaen Crystallines and Tertiary sandstone are exposed. The Archaeans are mainly represented by the Charnockite Group of rocks comprising garnetiferrous granulite and the Khondalite Group of rocks made up of quartzite of genesses. The Tertiary sandstone (Cuddalore Formation) comprise pinkish, yellowish, reddish (variegated colours) medium to coarse grained sandstone and clay stone. It is overlain by thin alluvium and exposed towards north of Vaigai River. Detached exposures of laterite and lateritic soil are seen in the northwestern part of the district.

A major part of the district is covered with the fluvial, fuvio-marine, Aeolian and marine sediments of Quaternary age. The fluvial deposits which are made up of sand, silt and clay in varying degree of admixture occur along the active channels of Vaigai, Gundar, Manimuthar and Pambar rivers. They have been categorized into levee, flood basin, channel bar/ point bar and paleo-channel deposits. The paleo channel deposits comprise brown coloured, fine to medium sands with well preserved cross-beddings.

The fluvio-marine deposits are exposed in the Vaigai delta as deltaic plain, paleo-tidal and dune flat deposits. The deltaic plain and dune flats comprise medium, Grey brown sands. The paleo tidal flat deposits include black silty clay, black clay and mud. In Rameswaram Island, the fluvio-marine deposits include indurated sand and dune sands. The Aeolian deposits comprise red sands which are in nature of ancient dunes and occur over a 3.2 Km wide and 8 Km long stretch and lie parallel to the sea coast. These are separated by marshy deposits of black clays.

The sands are underlain by calcareous hardpan. In Rameswaram Island also brown sand deposits occur around Sambaimadam on either side of NH 49 west of the town. The marine formation comprises coastal plain deposits of sand and clay in varied proportion. Marine calcareous hardpan occurs as low terraces and platforms, with admixture of quartz, limonite and garnet concentration.

TamilNadu Districts - Ramanathapuram

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